Doctoral Dissertations


"Measuring soil deformation characteristics during triaxial testing is an important part of characterizing the stress-strain behavior of both saturated and unsaturated soils. The total and local deformations and volume changes of a soil specimen are indispensable parameters that need to be measured and are of great significance for understanding volume change and shear strength characteristics of the soil. Over the past several decades, numerous efforts have been made to measure the soil deformations during triaxial testing. However, it remains a great challenge for researchers to measure the volume-changes of unsaturated soils due to the existence of the air phase.

This research presents a structure from motion photogrammetric method for continuously measuring the 3-D deformations of both saturated and unsaturated soils during triaxial testing. The proposed method has the following advantages: (a) it can continuously measure and track the soil deformations during the whole testing process; (b) it is highly automatic and user-friendly. The method has been implemented into an efficient computer program which can process the images and videos files rapidly; (c) it is low cost. The whole multi-camera system costs only about $ 2K;(d) it can measure the complete 3-D deformations/strain distribution of the soil specimen; In addition to the triaxial test soil specimen measurement, a multi-camera-based method has also been developed to measure and track the 3-D full-field displacements/strains of geosynthetics in tensile test. It can identify any localized strains at any location within the geosynthetics specimen"--Abstract, p. iv


Zhang, Xiong

Committee Member(s)

Deng, Wen
Olgun, C. Guney
Liu, Jenny
Yin, Zhaozheng


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Civil Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2024


xix, 233 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes_bibliographical_references_(pages 40, 75, 106, 131, 192, 222 and 2320-232)


© 2022 Xiaolong Xia, All rights reserved

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12364