Doctoral Dissertations


Aso A. Hassan

Keywords and Phrases

Bio-Diesel; CO2 Co-Solvent; Kinetic Model; Sub-Critical Water; Super-Critical Fluids; Transesterification


“Energy has become an indispensable factor in preserving economic growth since the commencement of the industrial revolution. In recent years, biodiesel has gained acceptance as a notable alternative to the widely used petroleum-derived diesel fuel because it is biodegradable, non-toxic, and generates fewer exhaust pollutants. Recently, biodiesel studies have focused on the development of process intensification technologies to resolve some technical challenges facing biodiesel production, such as long residence times and catalyst sensitivity. These intensification technologies enhance process mass/heat transfer to achieve a continuous, scalable process that can be easily transported to utilize locally available feed stocks. Five phases have been followed to design and build a continuous, scalable process. In the first phase, the esterification and trans-esterification reactions of waste cooking oil (WCO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) were investigated. This investigation examined the potential benefits of combining the trans‐esterification method with microwave technology. In the second phase, an intensive study has been made to design and build a prototype laboratory-scale set up of non-catalyzed supercritical alcohol. A prototype reactor setup was designed and used for continuous biodiesel production in the temperature and pressure range of 240 - 400 °C and 70 - 400 bar, respectively. Third, CO2 was used as a co-solvent to make the supercritical process conditions milder. Fourth, a trace amount of the catalyst and the co-solvent have been used to increase the process yield. Fifth, the two-step sub/supercritical water and ethanol processes for non- catalytic biodiesel production were investigated. The process kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were also studied and calculated”--Abstract, page iv.


Smith, Joseph D.

Committee Member(s)

Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.
Ludlow, Douglas K.
Ryan, Peter
Dogan, Fatih


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Chemical Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2020

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Investigation of microwave assisted transesterification reactor of waste cooking oil
  • Laboratory-scale research of non-catalyzed supercritical alcohol process for continuous biodiesel production
  • Optimizing catalyst‐free biodiesel production with supercritical ethanol and CO₂ co-solvent using response surface methodology
  • Using ethanol in continuous biodiesel production with trace catalyst and CO₂ co-solvent
  • Two-step sub/supercritical water and ethanol processes for non-catalytic biodiesel production


xix, 214 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2020 Aso Abdulkareem Hassan, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11874

Electronic OCLC #