Doctoral Dissertations


Ruobai Zhao

Keywords and Phrases

CCR; Electrical resistivity tomography; Karst; Multichannel analysis of surface waves; Seepage; Solid waste landfill


"The safe containment of coal combustion residual (CCR) in landfills was addressed by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) CCR rule published in 2015. The new rule affects new and existing U.S. based CCR landfills in terms of implementing safeguard systems for safe disposal and contamination control. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) data were acquired across and in proximity to a CCR landfill in southwest Missouri, USA, with the intent to identify potential karst features and seepage pathways.

Electrical resistivity tomography data were acquired using an automated 8-channel resistivity meter and multichannel analysis of surface waves data were acquired using a 24-channel Seistronix engineering seismograph and 4.5 Hz geophones. MASW data were acquired to aid the ERT data interpretation by providing engineering properties of subject materials. The outcome from the ERT survey were a suite of 2D and 3D resistivity images. ERT investigates the subsurface to a depth of approximately 100 ft. The outcome from the MASW survey were a suite of 1-D and 2-D (depth vs. shear wave velocity) profiles. MASW investigates the subsurface to a depth of approximately 100 ft. The variations in top-of-rock, variations in moisture content of the CCR, soil and bedrock, and seepage pathways and flow patterns, were successfully mapped.

The findings of this research indicate that the seepage pathways in close proximity to the landfill are from surface run-off and do not pose a threat to groundwater, and no evidence of karst features that could affect the structure stability of the CCR landfill in close proximity to and underneath the site was found"--Abstract, page iii.


Anderson, Neil L. (Neil Lennart), 1954-

Committee Member(s)

Rogers, J. David
Sneed, Lesley
Torgashov, Evgeniy V.
Maerz, Norbert H.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Geological Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2018


xii, 118 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references (pages 111-117).

Geographic Coverage



© 2018 Ruobai Zhao, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11662

Electronic OCLC #



Dissertation Location