Doctoral Dissertations


Bichen Chen

Keywords and Phrases

Calibration; De-embedding; Measurement; Power integrity; Signal integrity; VNA


"Due to the simplicity of design and measurement, as well as the accuracy of results, the 2X-Thru de-embedding (2XTD), 1X-Reflection de-embedding (1XRD), and Thru-Line de-embedding (TLD) have been replaced the traditional de-embedding algorithms, such as TRL and SOLT. In this dissertation, theory of 2n-port 2XTD, 1XRD, and TLD are completely derived first. The self-error reduction schemes is introduced to mitigate the de-embedding errors due to non-ideal manufacturing effects of non-zero mode conversion terms, as well as the asymmetric, and manufacturing variations. The validations are performed on both theory and self-error reduction through simulation and measurements cases. The 2X-Thru de-embedding (2XTD) is discussed in details. The prevailing 2X-Thru de-embedding (2XTD) requires much less calibration standards, yet still maintain the high accuracy of de-embedded results. Nevertheless every de-embedding method is based on the rigorous mathematical derivations, the manufacturing variations are inevitable. IEEE P370 committee provided the manufactured test coupons with golden standard to test the accuracy of different de-embedding methods when considering the manufacturing variations. Such manufacturing variations are propagated to the de-embedded results through the sensitivity of the test fixtures. The error reductions scheme in this section mitigates the de-embedded errors by correcting some of the manufacturing variations in the algorithm. This section will focus on the three kinds of manufacturing variations: 1) test fixture asymmetry; 2) the perturbations of the test fixtures in the calibration structure of 2X-Thru and de-embedding structure of Total; 3) the mode conversion terms due to the manufacturing variations"--Abstract, page iv.


Fan, Jun, 1971-

Committee Member(s)

Drewniak, James L.
Beetner, Daryl G.
Pommerenke, David
Ye, Xiaoning


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering


National Science Foundation (U.S.)


This dissertation is based upon work supported partially by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIP-1440110.


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Summer 2019

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • 2X-Thru de-embedding (2XTD) technique: Error analysis, error bounds and error reduction
  • A novel smart fixture de-embedding (SFD) method by using 1X-Reflection standard
  • Thru-Line de-embedding (TLD), an accurate and simplified fixture removal method with self-validating line standard and de-embedding error quantification mechanism


xiii, 105 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2019 Bichen Chen, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11585

Electronic OCLC #