Doctoral Dissertations


"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to the use of organic solvents, typically N-methyl-pyrrolidone, to dissolve the binder additive. A drying line is needed to evaporate the solvent from the electrode layer and an expensive recovery system is needed to collect the evaporated solvent. In total, the use of NMP attributes ~14.5% to the overall Li-ion battery cell costs. The solvent-free manufacturing method has been developed to eliminate these problems. In this method, the electrode materials are dry mixed and directly deposited on to the current collector. Therefore, uniform distribution of the electrode particles during the mixing process is the driving factor for the solvent-free additive manufactured batteries. The distribution of dry electrode materials was studied through experimental mixing studies, mixing models, and mixing simulations to better understand how the electrode material's surface properties effect the final distribution of electrode particles. Afterwards, Li-ion batteries were assembled with solvent-free manufactured electrodes and compared to slurry-cast electrodes with similar specifications"--Abstract, page iv.


Pan, Heng

Committee Member(s)

Leu, M. C. (Ming-Chuan)
Liou, Frank W.
Newkirk, Joseph William
Park, Jonghyun


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Mechanical Engineering


National Science Foundation (U.S.)
Missouri University of Science and Technology Intelligent System Center
Missouri University of Science and Technology. Materials Research Center
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Basic Energy Sciences


This work was financially supported by the NSF CMMI‐1462343, CMMI‐1462321, and IIP‐1640647. It was also supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Physical Behavior of Materials Program under Contract No. DE‐SC0014435.


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2019

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Understanding interfacial-energy-driven dry powder mixing for solvent-free additive manufacturing of Li-ion battery electrodes
  • Simulation of micro/nanopowder mixing characteristics for dry spray additive manufacturing of Li-ion battery electrodes
  • Scalable dry printing manufacturing to enable long-life and high energy lithium-ion batteries


xiii, 154 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2019 Brandon Joshua Ludwig, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11541

Electronic OCLC #