Doctoral Dissertations


Chao Zhang

Keywords and Phrases

High-speed flow; Turbulence simulation; Turbulent boundary layers


"Direct Numerical Simulations are used to generate a database of high-speed zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers developing spatially over a flat plate with nominal freestream Mach number ranging from 2:5 to 14 and wall-to-recovery temperature ranging from 0:18 to 1:0. The flow conditions of the DNS are representative of the operational conditions of the Purdue Mach 6 quiet tunnel, the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 8, and the AEDC Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 at Mach 14. The DNS database is used to gauge the performance of compressibility transformations, including the classical Morkovin's scaling and strong Reynolds analogy as well as the newly proposed mean velocity and temperature scalings that explicitly account for wall heat flux, examine the pressure fluctuations generated by the turbulent boundary layers. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. The simulations show that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure structures within the boundary layer and in the free stream evolve less rapidly as the wall temperature decreases, resulting in an increase in the decorrelation length of coherent pressure structures for the colder wall case. The pressure structures propagate with similar speeds for both wall temperatures. Acoustic sources are largely concentrated in the near-wall region; wall cooling most significantly influences the nonlinear (slow) component of the acoustic source term by enhancing dilatational fluctuations in the viscous sublayer while damping vortical fluctuations in the buffer and log layers. Precomputed flow statistics, including Reynolds stresses and their budgets, are available at the website of the NASA Langley Turbulence Modeling Resource"--Abstract, page iv.


Duan, Lian, 1983-

Committee Member(s)

Isaac, Kakkattukuzhy M.
Riggins, David W.
Hosder, Serhat
He, Xiaoming


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Aerospace Engineering


United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Langley Research Center
NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division
U.S. High Performance Computing Modernization Program
U.S. National Science Foundation .Petascale Computing Resource Allocations


This material is based on the work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Award No. FA9550-14-1-0170, managed by Dr. Ivett Leyva. The work was initiated under the support of NASA Langley Research Center under the Research Cooperative Agreement No. NNL09AA00A (through the National Institute of Aerospace). Computational resources are provided by the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division, the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program, and the NSF’s PRAC program (NSF ACI-1640865).


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2018

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Pressure fluctuations induced by a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer
  • Effect of wall cooling on boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations at Mach 6
  • Direct numerical simulation database for supersonic and hypersonic turbulent boundary layers


xiv, 149 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2018 Chao Zhang, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11456

Electronic OCLC #