Doctoral Dissertations

Keywords and Phrases

N-nitrosamines; Peracetic acid; Perchlorate


"In order to maintain drinking water primary standards compliance under the USEPA Stage 2 Disinfectant Disinfection Byproducts Rule, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are switching from free chlorine (FC) to chloramines (MCA). Concerns are raised as MCA disinfection has been linked N-nitrosamine formation. N-nitrosamines are a group of nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) which are highly carcinogenic in comparison to regulated DBPs (THMs and HAAs, generated by FC disinfection). Also in the forefront of drinking water concerns are other emerging drinking water contaminants such as perchlorate. Perchlorate is a contaminant which can enter drinking water from natural deposits or through introduction by anthropogenic actives and applications which the USEPA has decided to regulate.

To contend with current drinking water issues, two major areas were targeted: (1) perchlorate removal and (2) drinking water DBP and emerging contaminant formation by an alternative disinfectant (peracetic acid, PAA). Perchlorate monitoring was performed at higher risk DWTP locations within the state of Missouri with levels below the estimated regulatory limit (4 µg/L or higher). Perchlorate removal from drinking water was also studied by adsorptive materials: powdered activated carbons (PACS) and clays. Out of all the materials studied, one clay (TC-99) had efficient removal with quick kinetics. PAA disinfection was studied to determine the formation of THMs, HAAs, HNMs, perchlorate, bromate, and N-nitrosamines. In comparison to FC and/or MCA, PAA disinfection yielded significantly less of the monitored contaminants, with the majority remaining below their respective detection limits"--Abstract, page iv.


Ma, Yinfa
Shi, Honglan

Committee Member(s)

Nam, Paul Ki-souk
Winiarz, Jeffrey G.
Burken, Joel G. (Joel Gerard)



Degree Name

Ph. D. in Chemistry


Missouri. Department of Natural Resources
United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Tulsa Metropolitan Utility Authority
National Science Foundation (East Asia and Pacific Institutes)
Missouri University of Science and Technology. Environmental Research Center


This publication was made possible by the USEPA (Grant # 83517301).


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date


Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate using rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry and perchlorate removal in drinking water
  • Assessment of disinfection byproduct formation by peracetic acid-based disinfection for drinking water
  • Formation of eight N-nitrosamines in the absence and presence of seven N-nitrosamine precursors in disinfected drinking water


xiii, 119 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2015 Danielle Marie West, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11153

Electronic OCLC #


Included in

Chemistry Commons