Doctoral Dissertations


Nima Lotfi

Keywords and Phrases

Control; Li-ion Batteries; Modeling; Open-cathode PEM Fuel Cells; State of Charge Estimation; Voltage Regulation


"Environmental, political, and availability concerns regarding fossil fuels in recent decades have garnered substantial research and development in the area of alternative energy systems. Among various alternative energy systems, fuel cells and batteries have attracted significant attention both in academia and industry considering their superior performances and numerous advantages. In this dissertation, the modeling and control of these two electrochemical sources as the main constituents of fuel cell-battery hybrid energy sources are studied with ultimate goals of improving their performance, reducing their development and operational costs and consequently, easing their widespread commercialization. More specifically, Paper I provides a comprehensive background and literature review about Li-ion battery and its Battery Management System (BMS). Furthermore, the development of an experimental BMS design testbench is introduced in this paper. Paper II discusses the design of a novel observer for Li-ion battery State of Charge (SOC) estimation, as one of the most important functionalities of BMSs. Paper III addresses the control-oriented modeling and analysis of open-cathode fuel cells in order to provide a comprehensive system-level understanding of their real-time operation and to establish a basis for control design. Finally, in Paper IV a feedback controller, combined with a novel output-injection observer, is designed and implemented for open-cathode fuel cell temperature control. It is shown that temperature control not only ensures the fuel cell temperature reference is properly maintained, but, along with an uncertainty estimator, can also be used to adaptively stabilize the output voltage"--Abstract, page iv.


Landers, Robert G.

Committee Member(s)

Balakrishnan, S.N.
Park, Jonghyun
Ferdowsi, Mehdi
Kimball, Jonathan W.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Mechanical Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Summer 2016

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Development of an experimental testbed for research in lithium-ion battery management systems
  • Reduced-order electrochemical model-based SOC observer with output model uncertainty estimation
  • Performance characterization and control-oriented modeling of open-cathode fuel cell systems
  • Active disturbance rejection control for voltage stabilization in open-cathode fuel cells through temperature regulation


xii, 193 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2016 Nima Lotfi Yagin, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells -- Testing
Electric batteries
Voltage regulators

Thesis Number

T 10967

Electronic OCLC #