Doctoral Dissertations


Dhiren Panda


"The SCIBS (Submerged Combustion In-Bath Smelting) process has been in use worldwide for the past two decades to process materials - mainly tin, zinc, and lead concentrates. The process involves injecting fuel, either gaseous or liquid, through a lance into a molten bath of slag or concentrate. The injection of large volumes of gases results in extremely turbulent conditions, providing intense mixing of the melt. The mixing helps in obtaining faster rates of reaction due to enhanced mass transfer rates. The presence of large volumes of gases also provides for excellent fuming conditions, which helps in the removal of volatile species such as lead, zinc, and cadmium.

Research work has been carried out at the Center for Pyrometallurgy at the University of Missouri-Rolla to study the fundamentals of the SCIBS process to treat waste oxide materials containing zinc and lead. The research has been sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines and is currently focused on treating zinc retort residue wastes from the MO-OK-KS tri-state area. The material contains approximately 6% Zn, and 2% Pb, as the main elements of concern. The project is aimed at cleaning up the slag by adding a reductant, namely coke or charcoal, to the molten slag bath, in order to fume off lead and zinc, among other volatile oxides. The resulting slag is expected to pass the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test so that it can be rendered non-hazardous, and disposed of safely. The experimental results show that the process can produce final slags consistently having less than 2% Zn and 0.1% Pb"--Abstract, page iii.


Robertson, D. G. C.

Committee Member(s)

Watson, John L.
Schlesinger, Mark E.
O'Keefe, T. J. (Thomas J.)
Wiebe, Henry Allen


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Metallurgical Engineering


University of Missouri--Rolla

Publication Date

Spring 1997


xvii, 172 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 165-171).


© 1997 Dhiren Kumar Panda, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 7314

Print OCLC #


Link to Catalog Record

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