Effectiveness of Jet-Grout Columns for Mitigation of Liquefaction During Earthquakes


The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=1A) caused significant damage along Izmit Bay. We investigated the performance of improved soil sites in the region. An important site was Carrefour Shopping Center which is underlain by soft clays, silts, and liquefiable sands. Jet-grout columns had been installed to reduce static settlements and prevent liquefaction. Post-earthquake inspections showed the grouting to be effective in reducing damage. Dynamic finite element analyses were used to model the reinforced ground at the site. Surprisingly, the results suggest that the columns did not reduce seismic shear stresses and strains in the soil mass. Column effectiveness was more related to vertical support that prevented settlements. Our findings imply that design methods that assume composite shear behavior for columnar-reinforced ground can greatly overestimate the actual level of improvement.

Meeting Name

2nd International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation, GEDMAR08 (2008: May 30-Jun. 2, Nanjing, China)


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Accidents; Clay Minerals; Concrete Construction; Elasticity; Geotechnical Engineering; Grouting; Mortar; Patient Rehabilitation; Shopping Centers; Soil Liquefaction; Soils; Structural Design, Design Methods; Dynamic Finite Element Analysis; Izmit Bays; Shear Behaviors; Soft Clays; Soil Sites, Earthquakes

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


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© 2008 Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2008

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