Younger Driver's Evaluation of Vehicle Mounted Attenuator Markings in Work Zones Using a Driving Simulator


Goulias, K. G. and Mohammadian, A.


This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four vehicle mounted attenuator (VMA) markings used by the Departments of Transportation (DOTs) in work zones. A driving simulator was used to evaluate the perception of seventy-three young participants who drove through virtual highway work zones. Lane change distance (LCD) was used to analyze their reaction to the VMA markings during the daytime. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the significant variables affecting the LCD. A pairwise least-square means test was performed to determine the difference between the LCDs for the markings. A subjective evaluation was also carried out in which the participants ranked the markings based on different criteria. The participants were also surveyed on the features of individual markings, and their most preferred marking. The results of the objective and subjective evaluations were consistent, and suggested that overall the red and white checkerboard pattern was the most effective and preferred among the four markings. A DOT survey conducted in conjunction with this study indicated that the yellow and black inverted 'V' pattern was widely used in the United States as it was provided by most VMA suppliers.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Second Department

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Vehicle Mounted Attenuator (VMA); Driving Simulator; Work Zone; Driver Behavior; Traffic Control Devices (TCD)

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2010 Maney Publishing, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2010