Offsite construction has showed great potential in addressing many of the industry's problems. While multiple research efforts have been directed at examining different offsite construction aspects, few studies investigated the workforce-related aspects. Therefore, this study aims to address this knowledge gap by examining the impact of offsite construction on the workforce, as represented by the following five workforce categories: offsite, onsite, engineering and design, construction and fabrication, and administrative workforce. To this end, this paper (1) determined the impact of offsite construction on the skillset (reskilling or upskilling) and the demand (shrink or growth) for the offsite and onsite construction workforce occupations; (2) evaluated the impact of offsite construction on the technical and managerial skills of the engineering, construction, and administrative workforce occupations; and (3) identified the specific required skills that need to be incorporated into the offsite construction training programs for the workforce. The results showed that the skillsets for all offsite and onsite workforce occupations need to be upskilled. While the demand for the offsite construction workforce will increase, the demand for around 79% of the onsite workforce occupations will decrease. The findings also reflected that a total of 20 main skills are needed for the offsite construction engineering and design workforce, a total of 24 key skills are needed for the construction and fabrication workforce involved in offsite construction operations, and 22 skills are needed for the offsite construction administrative workforce. This study adds to the body of knowledge by helping offsite construction industry practitioners in workforce planning and management, in the prioritization of training needs and programs, and in identifying the required skillset to improve the quality of the workforce involved in the offsite construction operations.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


University of Arkansas, Grant CII RT-371

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1943-7862; 0733-9364

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 American Society of Civil Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jul 2022