Anti-washout concrete (AWC) is a special cement-based material that can be directly employed in underwater environments without dispersion. It was developed around 50 years ago, and more than 150 journal articles and technical reports have been published. This paper provides a holistic review about the basic fresh-state and hardened-state properties of the AWC, such as water (washout) resistance, consistency, bleeding and segregation resistance, mechanical properties, and durability, as well as relevant testing methods. The discrepancies between AWC's characteristics and those of conventional concrete are clearly presented. The mixture compositions, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), and other conditions that affect AWC's performance are also elaborated. Finally, the paper discusses the specific performance requirements of AWC and corresponding construction strategies for its different applications, including normal construction, marine engineering, bulk filling, and repair practices. Future research needs to stimulate the development of AWC are also discussed.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant 51909072

Keywords and Phrases

Anti-washout admixtures; Anti-washout concrete; Mechanical properties; Mixture compositions; SCMs; Water resistance

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

15 Aug 2022