A Proactive Risk Assessment Framework to Maximize Schedule Benefits of Modularization in Construction Projects


Various studies developed models and decision support tools to assess the feasibility and optimize the use of modularization. However, none has explored the schedule benefits of modular construction. This paper fills this knowledge gap. To this end, the authors completed the following: (1) analyzed the criticalities of the various modular risk factors on potential schedule savings using data collected from 48 industry professionals, (2) investigated the schedule savings associated with the use of modularization using data collected from 68 modular construction projects, and (3) developed an interrelated assessment model to calculate the schedule savings of using modularization. The provided model was verified using extreme conditions, surprised behavior tests, and sensitivity analysis. Also, it was validated by industry experts. The results show that design and engineering issues, regulatory and organizational matters, and resources and technology aspects are among the top parameters affecting schedule savings of modularized construction projects. This research adds to the body of knowledge by developing a decision-making benchmark that can assist project stakeholders in making proactive decisions, suitable mitigating strategies, and early corrective actions to ensure maximized capitalization on the schedule benefits of modularization in the construction industry.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Integrated Risk Assessment; Modular Construction; Modular Risks

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1943-7862; 0733-9364

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jul 2022