Microscopic and Durability Evaluation of In-Situ Extracted Internal GFRP Reinforcing Bars after Temporal Exposure


This study assesses the durability of GFRP bars in concrete bridges exposed to a real-time weather environment. In order to observe any possible mechanical and chemical changes in the GFRP bars and concrete, several tests were conducted on the GFRP bars and surrounding concrete of the extracted cores. Carbonation depth, pH, and chlorides content were performed on the extracted concrete cores to evaluate the GFRP-surrounding environment and see how they influenced certain behaviors of GFRP bars. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe any microstructural degradations within the GFRP bar and on the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was applied to check for any chemical elemental changes. In addition, glass transition temperature (TA) and fiber content tests were carried out to assess the temperature state of the resin and check any loss in fiber content of the bar after these years of service. The results showed that there were no microstructural degradations in both bridges. EDS results were positive for one of the bridges, and they were negative with signs for leaching and alkali-hydrolysis attack on the other. Fiber content results for both bridges were within the permissible limits of ACI 440 standard. Carbonation depth was found only in one of the bridges. In addition, there were no signs for chlorides attack in concrete. This study adds new evidence to the validation of the long-term durability of GFRP bars as concrete reinforcing used in field applications.

Meeting Name

10th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, CICE 2021 (2021: Dec. 8-10, Istanbul, Turkey)


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Chlorides content; Durability; EDS; FTIR; Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP); pH; SEM; TA

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2366-2565; 2366-2557

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 2021 The Authors, under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Publication Date

10 Dec 2021