Methodology to Evaluate Variations in Concrete Color Caused by White Cement Substitutions and Forming Materials


An experimental program was conducted to develop a methodology to quantify the gradation of the concrete color. The proposed methodology was used to evaluate the effect of the supplementary cementitious materials and the limestone filler used as partial substitution of white cement in architectural precast concrete. The effect of the formwork materials on concrete color was also investigated. Conventional concrete mixtures were prepared using different binder types, including gray-high early strength cement, white cement, limestone filler, blast-furnace slag, and metakaolin, to evaluate the compressive strength development that are suitable for the precast architectural applications. The corresponded paste mixtures were prepared to evaluate the variations in concrete color with the time under the air-curing conditions. The proposed methodology was found to provide precise classification for color gradation of concrete. The ternary powder blend of 50% high early strength cement, 25% white cement, and 25% high Blaine limestone filler, by mass, was found to be optimal to achieve reasonable white tint in compensation with the need to retain high early strength. A superworkable concrete and two self-consolidating concrete mixtures were cast in a special Z-shaped mold built up using PVC, steel, plywood, and polyester filter liner. The color of concrete surfaces cast in the plywood and polyester filter lined formwork materials were found darker than that of the concrete cast in the PVC and steel formworks.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Architectural concrete; Color; Limestone filler; Metakaolin; Slag; Strength; Surface quality

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1359-5997; 1871-6873

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Dec 2020