Experimental and Analytical Approach for Prediction of Out-Of-Plane Capacity of Reinforced Masonry Walls Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Laminate


This experimental study has shown the effectiveness of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) external bonding (EB) in enhancing the flexural capacity of reinforced masonry (RM) walls subjected to out-of-plane cyclic load. Twelve reinforced masonry walls were built using fully grouted concrete masonry units. The walls had three different steel reinforcement amounts, 2#3, 2#4, and 1#5, representing typical underreinforced wall sections. The strengthened walls used two FRP types, wet lay-up glass fiber sheet (GFRP) and prefabricated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer laminate (CFRP). Four RM walls without strengthening were used as reference specimens. Six walls were externally strengthened using one and two sheets of GFRP. The remaining walls were strengthened with one and two CFRP laminate. A simple model was developed to predict the FRP debonding strain. Nonlinear analysis can be conducted using the moment-curvature relation. As a result of this study, the proposed model presents an excellent prediction compared to the experimental results. Different modes of failure, including compressive concrete crushing failure, FRP rupture, shear failure, and FRP debonding from the masonry substrate, occurred in the strengthened reinforced walls.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Midwest Block and Brick in Jefferson City, Missouri and the Higher Committee for Education Development (HCED) in Iraq.

Keywords and Phrases

Cyclic load; Fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM); Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP); Masonry walls; Near surface mounted (NSM); Out-of-plane; Strengthening

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1090-0268; 1943-5614

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2019