Engineering the Outermost Layers of TiO₂ Nanoparticles using in Situ Mg Doping in a Flame Aerosol Reactor


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles with disordered outermost layer sturctures have significantly enhanced light absorption and photocatalytic properties and thus receiving enhanced attention in recent years. Engineering the outermost layers using in situ magnesium doping to tailor the band-edge of TiO2 nanoparticles was achieved via a flame aerosol reactor. The distribution of doped elements in nanoparticles could be controlled in a high temperature flame process, and which could be predicted by the comparison of different characteristic time scales, such as reaction time, coagulation time, and sintering time is proposed. In situ magnesium doping on the outermost layers effectively tailored the conduction band and electron structure of the TiO2 nanoparticles, and simultaneously improved the maximum photocurrent as well as the maximum photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells. These improvements were largely attributed to red-shifted light absorption, and rapid photoelectron injection into the conduction band.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21236003, 21322607, 21522602, 21506125, 91534202, 91534122), the Basic Research Program of Shanghai (14JC1490700, 15JC1401300), the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (2015DFA51220), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and the funds of China scholarship council.

Keywords and Phrases

Aerosols; Conduction bands; Dye-sensitized solar cells; Light absorption; Nanoparticles; Oxides; Sintering; Titanium dioxide; American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Characteristic time; Enhanced light absorptions; Flame aerosol reactor; High-temperature flames; In-situ doping; Outermost layer; Titanium dioxide nanoparticles; Magnesium; In situ doping

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0001-1541; 1547-5905

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Mar 2017