Mine-Impacted Water and Biochemical Reactors
Biochemical reactors (BCRs) biologically reduce sulfate to treat mine-impacted water. Generally, the BCR is a pondlike system containing a permeable bed including organic material. That organic material is used as an electron donor and sulfate in the metal-containing water is transformed during electron acceptance to sulfide, which precipitates many metals in an insoluble form. Adsorption and coprecipitation are other possible mechanisms of metals removal in BCRs. The key design parameter is the rate of sulfate reduction, which is determined by the rate at which the organic material, usually a woody material, is consumed. A wide range of sulfate reduction rates have been reported, presumably due to differences in degradability of the organic substrate. The hydraulics of a BCR is another design consideration, particularly because operational problems are most often related to flow patterns in the bed.
M. W. Fitch, "Mine-Impacted Water and Biochemical Reactors," Food, Energy, and Water: The Chemistry Connection, pp. 129-159, Elsevier, Jan 2015.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800211-7.00005-3
Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Biochemical reactor; Metal removal; Mine-impacted water; Passive treatment; Sulfate reduction
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
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© 2015 Elsevier, All rights reserved.
01 Jan 2015