The critical performance factors such as selectivity, sensitivity, operational and storage stability, and response time of electrochemical biosensors are governed mainly by the function of their key component, the bioelectrode. Suitable design and fabrication strategies of the bioelectrode interface are essential for realizing the requisite performance of the biosensors for their practical utility. A multifaceted attempt to achieve this goal is visible from the vast literature exploring effective strategies for preparing, immobilizing, and stabilizing biorecognition elements on the electrode surface and efficient transduction of biochemical signals into electrical ones (i.e., current, voltage, and impedance) through the bioelectrode interface with the aid of advanced materials and techniques. The commercial success of biosensors in modern society is also increasingly influenced by their size (and hence portability), multiplexing capability, and coupling in the interface of the wireless communication technology, which facilitates quick data transfer and linked decision-making processes in real-time in different areas such as healthcare, agriculture, food, and environmental applications. Therefore, fabrication of the bioelectrode involves careful selection and control of several parameters, including biorecognition elements, electrode materials, shape and size of the electrode, detection principles, and various fabrication strategies, including microscale and printing technologies. This review discusses recent trends in bioelectrode designs and fabrications for developing electrochemical biosensors. The discussions have been delineated into the types of biorecognition elements and their immobilization strategies, signal transduction approaches, commonly used advanced materials for electrode fabrication and techniques for fabricating the bioelectrodes, and device integration with modern electronic communication technology for developing electrochemical biosensors of commercial interest.



Publication Status

Open Access


Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India, Grant None

Keywords and Phrases

3D printing; bioelectrode fabrication; biorecognition elements; electrode geometry; lithographic techniques; miniaturized biosensor; nanomaterials; wireless technology

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 American Chemical Society, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023

Included in

Chemistry Commons