Assessing Plant Uptake of Organic Contaminants by Food Crops Tomato, Wheat, and Corn through Sap Concentration Factor


This study investigated uptake of two organic compounds including hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and exogenous caffeine by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The plants were grown in a growth chamber under recommended conditions and then were exposed to these compounds for 19 days. The uptake of the compounds was measured by sap concentration factor. The plant samples (stem transpiration stream) and solution in the exposure media were taken and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plant stem samples were analyzed after a freeze-thaw centrifugation process. The average sap concentration factor for the RDX by tomato, wheat, and corn was 0.71, 0.67, and 0.65. The average sap concentration factor for the exogenous caffeine by tomato, wheat, and corn was 0.72, 0.50, and 0.34. These relatively high sap concentration factor values were expected as available predictive models offer high sap concentration factor values for moderately hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds. The generated sap concentration factor values for the RDX and exogenous caffeine are important for improving the accuracy of previously developed machine learning models predicting the uptake and translocation of emerging contaminants.



Second Department

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Crop plants; freeze-thaw centrifugation; organic compounds; plant uptake; sap concentration factor

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1549-7879; 1522-6514

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Jan 2022