Sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) have different compositions compared to conventional petroleum jet fuels, particularly in terms of fuel sulfur and hydrocarbon content. These differences may change the amount and physicochemical properties of volatile and non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emitted by aircraft engines. In this study, we evaluate whether comparable nvPM measurement techniques respond similarly to nvPM produced by three blends of SAFs compared to three conventional fuels. Multiple SAF blends and conventional (Jet A-1) jet fuels were combusted in a V2527-A5 engine, while an additional conventional fuel (JP-8) was combusted in a CFM56-2C1 engine. We evaluated nvPM mass concentration measured by three real-Time measurement techniques: photoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced incandescence, and the extinction-minus-scattering technique. Various commercial instruments were tested, including three laser-induced incandescence (LII) 300s, one photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX), one micro soot sensor (MSS+), and two cavity-Attenuated phase shift PMSSA (CAPS PMSSA) instruments. Mass-based emission indices (EIm) reported by these techniques were similar, falling within 30ĝ€¯% of their geometric mean for EIm above 100ĝ€¯mg per kg fuel (approximately 10ĝ€¯μgĝ€¯PMĝ€¯m-3 at the instrument); this geometric mean was therefore used as a reference value. Additionally, two integrative measurement techniques were evaluated: filter photometry and particle size distribution (PSD) integration. The commercial instruments used were one tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), one particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP), and two scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPSs). The TAP and PSAP were operated at 5ĝ€¯% and 10ĝ€¯% of their nominal flow rates, respectively, to extend the life of their filters. These techniques are used in specific applications, such as on board research aircraft to determine particulate matter (PM) emissions at cruise. EIm reported by the alternative techniques fell within approximately 50ĝ€¯% of the mean aerosol-phase EIm. In addition, we measured PM-number-based emission indices using PSDs and condensation particle counters (CPCs). The commercial instruments used included TSI SMPSs, a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500), and an AVL particle counter (APC), and the data also fell within approximately 50ĝ€¯% of their geometric mean. The number-based emission indices were highly sensitive to the accuracy of the sampling-line penetration functions applied as corrections. In contrast, the EIm data were less sensitive to those corrections since a smaller volume fraction fell within the size range where corrections were substantial. A separate, dedicated experiment also showed that the operating laser fluence used in the LII 300 laser-induced incandescence instrument for aircraft-engine nvPM measurement is adequate for a range of SAF blends investigated in this study. Overall, we conclude that all tested instruments are suitable for the measurement of nvPM emissions from the combustion of SAF blends in aircraft engines.




U.S. Department of Defense, Grant 13-C-AJFE-MST

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1867-8548; 1867-1381

Document Type

Article - Journal

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Final Version

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

30 May 2022

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Chemistry Commons