Inefficient removal of total organic carbon (TOC) leads to the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) when a disinfectant is added. This study is performed in an effort to develop a simple, non-invasive, and cost-effective technology that will effectively lower organic precursors by having water utilities reuse their treatment residual solids. Jar tests are used to simulate drinking water treatment processes with coagulants-aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride (PACl), and ferric chloride and their residual solids. Ten coagulant-to-residual (C/R) ratios are tested with water from the Missouri River at Coopers Landing in Columbia, MO versus alluvial ground waters. This treatment results in heavier floc formation and leads to improved sedimentation of organics and additional removal of aluminum and iron. An average of 21%, 28%, and 33% additional TOC removal can be achieved with C/R ratios < 1 with alum, PACl, and ferric chloride, respectively.



Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)


This research was funded by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), grant number 83517301 and The APC was funded by University of Missouri-Columbia. Analytical and technical support was provided by Missouri Water Resource Research Center (MWRRC).

Keywords and Phrases

Coagulation; Disinfection by-products; Flocculation; TOC removal; Treatment residual solids; Turbidity

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2073-4441; 2073-4441

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2019 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2019

Included in

Chemistry Commons