Inefficient removal of total organic carbon (TOC) leads to the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) when a disinfectant is added. This study is performed in an effort to develop a simple, non-invasive, and cost-effective technology that will effectively lower organic precursors by having water utilities reuse their treatment residual solids. Jar tests are used to simulate drinking water treatment processes with coagulants-aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride (PACl), and ferric chloride and their residual solids. Ten coagulant-to-residual (C/R) ratios are tested with water from the Missouri River at Coopers Landing in Columbia, MO versus alluvial ground waters. This treatment results in heavier floc formation and leads to improved sedimentation of organics and additional removal of aluminum and iron. An average of 21%, 28%, and 33% additional TOC removal can be achieved with C/R ratios < 1 with alum, PACl, and ferric chloride, respectively.
S. R. Poleneni et al., "Enhanced Flocculation using Drinking Water Treatment Plant Sedimentation Residual Solids," Water (Switzerland), vol. 11, no. 9, MDPI AG, Aug 2019.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091821
Keywords and Phrases
Coagulation; Disinfection by-products; Flocculation; TOC removal; Treatment residual solids; Turbidity
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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01 Aug 2019