In the last several decades, significant efforts have been directed toward better understanding the gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. However, limited information is available on the hygroscopic properties of aircraft engine PM emissions which play an important role in the water absorption, airborne lifetime, obscuring effect, and detrimental health effects of these particles. This paper reports the description and detailed labbased performance evaluation of a robust hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in terms of hygroscopic properties such as growth factor (GF) and the hygroscopicity parameter (κ). The HTDMA system was subsequently deployed during the Alternative Aviation Fuel EXperiment (AAFEX) II field campaign to measure the hygroscopic properties of aircraft engine PM emissions in the exhaust plumes from a CFM56-2C1 engine burning several types of fuels. The fuels used were conventional JP-8, tallow-based hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA), Fischer-Tropsch, a blend of HEFA and JP-8, and Fischer- Tropsch doped with tetrahydrothiophene (an organosulfur compound). It was observed that GF and κ increased with fuel sulfur content and engine thrust condition, and decreased with increasing dry particle diameter. The highest GF and κ values were found in the smallest particles, typically those with diameters of 10 nm.
M. B. Trueblood et al., "Application of a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer for Characterizing PM Emissions in Exhaust Plumes from an Aircraft Engine Burning Conventional and Alternative Fuels," Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 18, no. 23, Copernicus GmbH, Dec 2018.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-17029-2018
Keywords and Phrases
aircraft emission; alternative fuel; atmospheric plume; hygroscopicity; measurement method; particulate matter
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01 Dec 2018