Transformations of the Low-Dimensional Zinc Phosphates to Complex Open-Framework Structures. Part 2: One-Dimensional Ladder to Two- and Three-Dimensional Structures


Open-framework zinc phosphates with one-dimensional ladder structures are shown to transform, under simple reaction conditions, to two- and three-dimensional structures. Thus, the one-dimensional ladder, [C6N4H22]0.5 [Zn(HPO4)2], I, on heating with piperazine in aqueous solution gives a layer phosphate, [C4N2H12][Zn2 (PO4)2], III, and the three-dimensional phosphates [C2N2H10]0.5[Zn(PO4], IV, [C6N4H22]0.5 [Zn2(PO4)2], V and [C6N4H21]4[Zn21 (PO4)18], VI. On heating in water in the absence of any amine, I transforms to a three-dimensional solid, [C6N4H22]0.5[Zn3 (PO4)2(HPO4)], VII, with 16-membered channels. Of these, III and IV are the only new compounds. The phosphates formed by the transformations of I exhibit unique structural features. Thus, in III, the layers are formed only with 3- and 4-membered rings and have step-like features due to the presence of infinite Zn-O-Zn linkages. Compound IV has a structure similar to that of the naturally occurring aluminosilicate, gismondine, and VI possesses unusual Zn7O6 clusters. The ladder zinc phosphate, [C3N2H12][Zn(HPO4)2], II, transforms to two layered compounds, [C3N2H12][Zn4 (PO4)2(HPO4)2], VIII, and [C3N2H12][Zn2 (HPO4)3], IX, on heating with zinc acetate and water, respectively. II, on heating in water in the presence of other amines, forms a ladder, [C3N2H5][Zn(HPO4)], X, and a three-dimensional phosphate, [C3N2H12]2 [Zn5(H2O)(PO4))4 (HPO4)], XI. The syntheses and structures of VIII-XI have already been reported. What is interesting is that the majority of the transformations seem to occur through the process of deprotonation of the phosphoryl group and elimination of the -HPO4 unit. The transformations of the ladder phosphates to higher dimensional structures reported in the present study not only demonstrate the seminal role of the one-dimensional structures as basic building units, but also the likely occurrence of self-assembly of these one-dimensional units in the building-up process.



Keywords and Phrases

Amine; Oxygen; Phosphate; Piperazine; Water; Zinc Acetate; Zinc Oxide; Zinc Phosphate, Article; Chemical Bond; Chemical Structure; Heating; Synthesis

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Article - Journal

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© 2001 Royal Society of Chemistry, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2001