Inhibitors of the Maillard Reaction and AGE Breakers as Therapeutics for Multiple Diseases


The Maillard reaction is a complex series of reactions that involve reducing-sugars and proteins, giving a multitude of end-products that are known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs can contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. AGEs also play a major role in vascular stiffening, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis and cataracts. Thus, AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers offer a potential strategy as therapeutics for diverse diseases. Various AGE inhibitors have been developed in recent years, and their underlying mechanism is based on the attenuation of glycoxidation and/or oxidative stress by the sequestration of metal ions, reactive 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, and reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species.



Keywords and Phrases

2 isopropylidenehydrazono 4 oxo 5 thiazolidinylacetanilide; 4 oxo n phenyl 4,5 dihydro 2 [(1 methylethylidene)hydrazino] 5 thiazoleacetamide; acetamide derivative; acetylsalicylic acid; advanced glycation end product; advanced glycation end product breaker; advanced glycation end product inhibitor; advanced glycation end product receptor; alagebrium; alt 946; aminoguanidine; angiotensin receptor antagonist; antioxidant; blocking agent; bromine derivative; can c; carnosine; clioquinol; deferoxamine; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase inhibitor; homocarnosine; iron chelating agent; metformin; n [[2 (hydrazinoiminomethyl)amino]ethyl]acetamide; n acetylcarnosine; n acetylcarnosine; n phenacyl 1,3 thiazolium bromide; nifedipine; perindopril; prodrug; pyridorin; pyridoxamine; soluble advanced glycation end product receptor; tenilsetam; thiazole derivative; unclassified drug; Alzheimer disease; arthritis; atherogenesis; atherosclerosis; cataract; cataractogenesis; chemoprophylaxis; clinical trial; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; diabetogenesis; drug mechanism; glycation; human; hypertension; inflammation; neurologic disease; neuroprotection; nonhuman; osteoarthritis; oxidation; oxidative stress; Parkinson disease; pathogenesis; pyridoxine deficiency; reduction; review; rigidity; vascular disease; Aging; Animals; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Glycosylation End Products, Advanced; Guanidines; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Maillard Reaction; Metformin; Neurodegenerative Diseases; Neuroprotective Agents; Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species; Receptors, Immunologic; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes; Maillard reaction

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Article - Journal

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© 2006 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jul 2006