An Assessment of the Threats to the Aquatic Resources due to Rapid Growth in the Extraction of Shale Gas in the US: An Application to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq


As of 2015 only four countries in the world are producing Shale gas on a commercial scale. These are Argentina, China, Canada and the US, with the latter producing approximately 90% of the total share. Even though for the case of US, the economic benefits of Shale gas extraction have been substantial, there exists considerably uncertainty in determining its environmental sustainability which is the main motivation behind this work. This effort is accomplished in three steps. In the first step, based on the literature available in the US, a comprehensive assessment of the threats to aquatic resources due to rapid growth in the extraction of Shale gas is carried out. Secondly, to address those identified risks recommendations are proposed to mitigate the adverse impacts. And in the third step, its applicability to Kurdistan region is assessed. Although at present Kurdistan is not producing any Shale gas commercially, the environmental impact studies conducted in the US will aid the Kurdistan government in shaping the future energy policies pertaining to sustainable Shale gas development.

Meeting Name

International Conference on Environmental Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industries: Kurdistan Region of Iraq as a Case Study: EIOGI (2017, Apr. 17-19, Koya-Erbil, Iraq)


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research

Keywords and Phrases

Environmental Impacts; Extraction; Gas Emissions; Greenhouse Gases; Hydraulic Fracturing; Shale Gas; Sustainable Development; Water Pollution; Canada and the US; Comprehensive Assessment; Economic Benefits; Environmental Impact Study; Environmental Sustainability; Iraq; Kurdistan Region of Iraq; Water Contamination; Shale; Greenhouse Gas Emissions

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

978-1-5090-3062-0; 978-1-5090-3972-2

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 2017 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2017