Effect of Time, Temperature, and Kinetics on the Hysteretic Adsorption-Desorption of H₂, Ar, and N₂ in the Metal-organic Framework Zn₂(bpdc)₂(bpee)


The intriguing hysteretic adsorption-desorption behavior of certain microporous metal-organic frameworks (MMOFs) has received considerable attention and is often associated with a gate-opening (GO) effect. Here, the hysteretic adsorption of N2 and Ar to Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee) (bpdc = 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate; bpee = 1,2-bipyridylethene) shows a pronounced effect of allowed experimental time at 77 and 87 K. When the time allowed is on the order of minutes for N2 at 77 K, no adsorption is observed, whereas times in excess of 60 h is required to achieve appreciable adsorption up to a limiting total coverage. Given sufficient time, the total uptake for N2 and Ar converged at similar reduced temperatures, but the adsorption of Ar was significantly more rapid than that of N2, an observation that can be described by activated configurational diffusion. N2 and Ar both exhibited discontinuous stepped adsorption isotherms with significant hysteresis, features that were dependent upon the allowed time. The uptake of H2 at 77 K was greater than for both N2 and Ar but showed no discontinuity in the isotherm, and hysteretic effects were much less pronounced. N2 and Ar adsorption data can be described by an activated diffusion process, with characteristic times leading to activation energies of 6.7 and 12 kJ/mol. Fits of H2 adsorption data led to activation energies in the range 2-7 kJ/mol at low coverage and nonactivated diffusion at higher coverage. An alternate concentration-dependent diffusion model is presented to describe the stepwise adsorption behavior, which is observed for N2 and Ar but not for H2. Equilibrium is approached very slowly for adsorption to molecularly sized pores at low temperature, and structural change (gate opening), although it may occur, is not required to explain the observations.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


United States. Department of Energy


This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy program, award DEFG36-08GO18139.

Keywords and Phrases

Activated diffusion; Adsorption data; Adsorption desorption; Concentration-dependent diffusion; Hysteretic effects; Low temperatures; Metal organic framework; Microporous; NO adsorption; Stepwise adsorption; Structural change; Total uptake; Activation energy; Desorption; Diffusion; Dyes; Hysteresis; Isotherms; Zinc; Adsorption; Argon; Hydrogen; Nitrogen; Organometallic Compound; Zn2(4,4' biphenyldicarboxylate)2(1,2 bipyridylethene); Zn2(4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate)2(1,2-bipyridylethene); Adsorption; Article; Chemistry; Kinetics; Surface property; Temperature; Time; Adsorption; Argon; Hydrogen; Kinetics; Nitrogen; Organometallic Compounds; Surface Properties; Temperature; Time Factors

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Article - Journal

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© 2011 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Nov 2011