Fluidized bed reactors are essential in a wide range of industrial applications, encompassing processes such as Fischer–Tropsch synthesis and catalytic cracking. The optimization of performance and reduction in energy consumption in these reactors necessitate the use of efficient heat transfer mechanisms. The present work examines the considerable impact of tube end geometries, superficial gas velocity, and radial position on heat transfer coefficients within fluidized bed reactors. It was found that the tapered tube end configurations have been empirically proven to improve energy efficiency in fluidized bed reactors significantly. For example, at a superficial gas velocity of 0.4 m/s, the tapered end form's local heat transfer coefficient (LHTC) demonstrated a significant 20% enhancement compared to the flat end shape. The results and findings of this work make a valuable contribution to the advancement of complex models, enhance the efficiency of fluidized bed reactor processes, and encourage further investigation into novel tube geometries.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Publication Status

Open Access

Keywords and Phrases

fluidized bed reactor; heat exchanging tubes; local heat transfer coefficient (LHTC); multiphase flow system; transport phenomena; tubes' end shape

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

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© 2023 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2023