The Influence of Nanoparticles on Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions


In this research, we report a scientific investigation of the effects of employing CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles as potential additives to refinery diesel fuel, in order to reduce the emissions of combustion process as well as to enhance the combustion process. Nanodiesel samples were prepared with various concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300 ppm). The experimental work was conducted using a four-stroke diesel engine with a single cylinder at various loads in order to accurately determine the influence of nanoparticles on combustion process. The experimental readings were measured at two conditions, cold start and hot start, 80relative to the engine. It was clearly observed that the nanodiesel fuels have significantly reduced CO, CO2, NO, unburned HC, and enhanced the engine performance. According to the experimental results, the 100 ppm TiO2 and 200 ppm CuO nanodiesel have shown almost the highest performance and lowest emissions comparable with neat diesel fuel and other nanodiesel samples. Owing to 100 ppm TiO2 on hot start conditions, it is found that the CO, CO2, NO, unburnt HC, exhaust temperature, and BSFC have been reduced by 41.4%, 37%, 38.3%, 81%, 4.9%, and 20.5%, respectively, at maximum load. Meanwhile, the brake power, RPM, and thermal efficiency have increased by 1.5%, 1%, and 2.65%, respectively. Regarding 200 ppm CuO on hot start conditions, it was found that CO, NO, unburned HC, exhaust temperature, fuel consumption, and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been reduced by 42.6%, 22%, 33%, 7.4%, 2.7%, and 27.3%, respectively, meanwhile, CO2, brake power, RPM, and thermal efficiency have increased by 9%, 1.5%, 0.09%, and 3.8%, respectively, at maximum load. One of the most important aspects of this experimental work is that the two samples of 100 ppm TiO2 and 200 ppm of CuO nanodiesel fuel have reduced the CO emissions to an even lower value than that approved in Stage V for Euro standard emissions for nonroad mobile machinery. According to Euro standard stage (V), the CO emissions have been limited to 8 g/kW, whereas the 100 ppm TiO2 and 200 ppm CuO nanodiesel fuel provide 7.112 g/kW h and 6.918 g/kW h, respectively. Another prospect of the experimental work is the reduction of fuel consumption provided by the nanodiesel fuel. It was observed that the 100 ppm TiO2 sample has reduced fuel consumption by 20.5% compared with the neat diesel fuel, which is expected to positively influence the transportation sector.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Book - Chapter

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Taylor and Francis Group; Apple Academic Press, All rights reserved.

Publication Date