Humans Express Seven Heparan Sulfate (HS) 3-O-Sulfotransferases that Differ in Substrate Specificity and Tissue Expression. Although Genetic Studies Have Indicated that 3-O-Sulfated HS Modulates Many Biological Processes, Ligand Requirements for Proteins Engaging with HS Modified by 3-O-Sulfate (3-OS) Have Been Difficult to Determine. in Particular, the Context in Which the 3-OS Group Needs to Be Presented for Binding is Largely Unknown. We Describe Herein a Modular Synthetic Approach that Can Provide Structurally Diverse HS Oligosaccharides with and Without 3-OS. the Methodology Was Employed to Prepare 27 Hexasaccharides that Were Printed as a Glycan Microarray to Examine Ligand Requirements of a Wide Range of HS-Binding Proteins. the Binding Selectivity of Antithrombin-III (AT-III) Compared Well with Anti-Factor Xa Activity Supporting Robustness of the Array Technology. Many of the Other Examined HS-Binding Proteins Required an IdoA2SGlcNS3S6S Sequon for Binding But Exhibited Variable Dependence for the 2-OS and 6-OS Moieties, and a GlcA or IdoA2S Residue Neighboring the Central GlcNS3S. the HS Oligosaccharides Were Also Examined as Inhibitors of Cell Entry by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Which, Surprisingly, Showed a Lack of Dependence of 3-OS, Indicating that, Instead of Glycoprotein D (GD), They Competitively Bind to GB and GC. the Compounds Were Also Used to Examine Substrate Specificities of Heparin Lyases, Which Are Enzymes Used for Depolymerization of HS/heparin for Sequence Determination and Production of Therapeutic Heparins. It Was Found that Cleavage by Lyase II is Influenced by 3-OS, While Digestion by Lyase I is Only Affected by 2-OS. Lyase III Exhibited Sensitivity to Both 3-OS and 2-OS.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


National Institutes of Health, Grant R01HL151617

Keywords and Phrases

3-O-sulfation; Anti-Factor Xa; Glycan microarray; Heparin lyases; Herpes simplex virus 1

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1091-6490; 0027-8424

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 National Academy of Sciences, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

13 Jan 2021

PubMed ID