Effects of Adding Sodium and Fluoride Ions to Glass Ionomer on its Interactions with Sodium Fluoride Solution
This investigates the effects of the addition of Na and F ions to a glass ionomer cement in which those ions are not inherently present on its interactions with dilute (0.2%) NaF solution. Both the effect of the solution on the cement's surface morphology and the effect of the cement on the solution in terms of take up of Na+ and F- and of change in pH are to be investigated. These results are to be compared to previous results obtained with glasses which contained both, one, or neither of the ions as components of their glasses. NaF (1.3% by weight in the mixed cement) was added to the powder components of a glass ionomer based on LG30 glass (which contains Al, Si, Ca, P, and O only). Discs of cement were set in moulds at 37°C for 1h then stored in water at 37°C for 3 days. Each test disc was then immersed in 10ml 0.2% NaF solution whereas controls remained immersed in water (N=3 for test and control). Test and control disc surfaces were assessed both qualitatively by electron microscopy and quantitatively by linear profilometry (R(a) values). Potentiometry was used to measure solution pH and Na and F concentrations using a pH electrode and suitable ion selective electrodes both before and after cement immersion. The surface of test specimens was subject considerable disruption with the polysalt cement matrix being removed and residual glass particles being disclosed. The controls showed no such disruption. This effect was reflected in a significant difference of R(a). Such an effect was not shown by test and control surfaces of LG30 but a similar effect was to that shown by LG26 (which contains F as a glass component). Solution pH changed by 1 unit which was much more than the change shown by LG30 or LG26 but is similar to that of AH2 and MP4 cements which both contain Na. The Na and F uptake was much lower than for LG30 whereas that of LG26 was higher than LG30. The Na:F ratio was 0.29:1 compared to 1.26:1 for LG30 (LG26=1.01:1, AH2=1.02:1, MP4=1.04:1). Fluoride addition to a F-free glass ionomer renders it vulnerable to surface disruption by NaF solution showing that fluoride complexes produced in glass dissolution are not necessarily involved in this process. Sodium addition to a Na-free glass ionomer confirms the role of this cement in enhancing pH change in NaF solution. The level of uptake of F- from a NaF solution in much lower than that for the F-free glass ionomer which shows there is no direct relationship between F- uptake and surface disruption. The ratio of Na:F uptake is below 0.3:1, but the pH change is similar to cements where the ratio is close to unity which indicates that F-/OH- interchange is not a significant mechanism even when anion/cation uptake is not balanced. Copyright (C) 2000.
R. W. Billington et al., "Effects of Adding Sodium and Fluoride Ions to Glass Ionomer on its Interactions with Sodium Fluoride Solution," Biomaterials, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 377 - 383, Elsevier, Feb 2000.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00199-4
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
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01 Feb 2000
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