A Review of Sternal Closure Techniques
Sternotomy and sternal closure occur prior to and post cardiac surgery, respectively. Although post-operative complications associated with poor sternal fixation can result in morbidity, mortality, and considerable resource utilization, sternotomy is preferred over other methods such as lateral thoracotomy. Rigid sternal fixation is associated with stability and reduced incidence of post-operative complications. This is a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating in vivo, in vitro, and clinical responses to applying commercial and experimental surgical tools for sternal fixation after median sternotomy. Wiring, interlocking, plate-screw, and cementation techniques have been examined for closure, but none have experienced widespread adoption. Although all techniques have their advantages, serious post-operative complications were associated with the use of wiring and/or plating techniques in high-risk patients. A fraction of studies have analyzed the use of sternal interlocking systems and only a single study analyzed the effect of using kryptonite cement with wires. Plating and interlocking techniques are superior to wiring in terms of stability and reduced rate of post-operative complications; however, further clinical studies and long-term follow-up are required. The ideal sternal closure should ensure stability, reduced rate of post-operative complications, and a short hospitalization period, alongside cost-effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
A. M. Alhalawani and M. R. Towler, "A Review of Sternal Closure Techniques," Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 483 - 497, SAGE Publications, Nov 2013.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328213495426
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
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01 Nov 2013