American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Specifications, Standards, Manuals and Research Reports (1946 - present)

Alternative Title

Research report RP19-1


The objective of this project is to review the existing provisions of the AISI S100-16 North American Specification for Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, for screw connections loaded in shear and tension (but not combined actions). A recent study by the Steel Deck Institute (Sputo 2017) revealed possible unconservative results for screw pull-over, particularly in thinner sheets and/or lower ductility.

This study performed a comprehensive analysis of available steel-to-steel screw connection strength test data, totaling 702 shear tests, 143 pull-over tests, and 335 pull-out tests. The tested strength of these connections was compared to the predicted strength from the existing strength equations in the AISI S100-16 Standard. The validity of the existing equations was evaluated based on how well the predicted strengths matched the tested strengths. From this analysis, recommended adjustments to the equations, factors of safety, and/or resistance were determined and reported.

This study found that the existing equations in AISI S100-16 for screw connections loaded in shear do not need to be revised, although the resistance factors for both LRFD and LSD could be increased.

For the limit state of pull-over, the existing equations in AISI S100-16 do not need to be revised, while the resistance and safety factors for pull-over could be revised, with distinction between connections with ductile steel and connections with low-ductility steel. This study did not look at the effect of geometry on pull-over, and further investigation is recommended.

For the limit state of pull-out, the analysis of available test data indicates that the current nominal strength prediction equation in AISI S100-16 should to be revised by including an adjustment factor into the equation. The proposed adjustment factor results in increased usable strength in connections with sheet thickness greater than 0.04 inches. It was found that the pull-out resistance factors could be increased slightly. It should be noted that a large majority of the pull-out tests analyzed consisted of connections with ductile steel; therefore additional research should be conducted before conclusions can be drawn regarding pull-out failure of low-ductility screw connections.

Research Center/Lab(s)

Wei-Wen Yu Center for Cold-Formed Steel Structures


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)

Publication Date

12 Apr 2019

Document Version

Final Version


© 2018 American Iron and Steel Institute, All rights reserved


A Research Project Sponsored by The American Iron and Steel Institute and The Steel Deck Institute
19 November 2018
Revised 12 April 2019

Document Type

Technical Report

File Type




Technical Report Number