Body Temperatures and Kinematics Are Measured for Male Centris Pallida Bees Engaged in a Variety of Flight Behaviors (Hovering, Patrolling, Pursuit) at a Nest Aggregation Site in the Sonoran Desert. the Aim of the Study is to Test for Evidence of Thermoregulatory Variation in Convective Heat Loss and Metabolic Heat Production and to Assess the Mechanisms of Acceleration and Forward Flight in Field Conditions. Patrolling Males Have Slightly (1-3°C) Cooler Body Temperatures Than Hoverers, Despite Similar Wingbeat Frequencies and Larger Body Masses, suggesting that Convective Heat Loss is Likely to Be Greater during Patrolling Flight Than during Hovering. Comparisons of Thorax and Head Temperature as a Function of Air Temperature (Ta) Indicate that C. Pallida Males Are Thermoregulating the Head by Increasing Heat Transfer from the Thorax to the Head at Cool Ta. during Patrolling Flight and Hovering, Wingbeat Frequency Significantly Decreases as Ta Increases, indicating that Variation in Metabolic Heat Production Contributes to Thermal Stability during These Behaviors, as Has Been Previously Demonstrated for This Species during Flight in a Metabolic Chamber. However, Wingbeat Frequency during Brief (1-2s) Pursuits is Significantly Higher Than during Other Flight Behaviors and Independent of Ta. Unlike Most Other Hovering Insects, C. Pallida Males Hover with Extremely Inclined Stroke Plane Angles and Nearly Horizontal Body Angles, suggesting that its Ability to Vary Flight Speed Depends on Changes in Wingbeat Frequency and Other Kinematic Mechanisms that Are Not Yet Described. © 2005 the Royal Entomological Society.


Biological Sciences

Keywords and Phrases

Bees; Centris pallida; Flight; Kinematics; Thermoregulation

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Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2023 Wiley; Royal Entomological Society, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2005

Included in

Entomology Commons