Hemoglobin (Hb) is a Highly Conserved Protein that Provides a Vital Link between Environmental Oxygen and its Use And/or Storage within an Organism. While Ubiquitous among Vertebrates, Hb Occurs Frequently in Invertebrate Phyla as Well. Many Arthropod Species Use the Copper-Binding Pigment Hemocyanin, But Unique in This Phylum Are the Branchiopod Crustaceans, Which Express Hb. Branchiopod Hb Concentration and Structure Are Exquisitely Sensitive to Environmental Oxygen Availability. Hemoglobin Concentration and Oxygen-Binding Affinity Increase with Decreasing Oxygen Tension in Daphnia, Artemia and Triops. the Change in Binding Affinity is Attributed to Differential Hb Subunit Expression in Daphnia and Artemia But Remains Unclear for Triops. This is the First Study to Demonstrate Developmental Plasticity of Hb Subunit Expression in a Notostracan, Triops Longicaudatus, Reared under Conditions of Varying Oxygen Availability. in Response to Variable Oxygen Environments, T. Longicaudatus Differentially Express Four Primary Hb Subunits Ranging between 30 and 34 KDa, with Normoxic-Reared Animals Expressing Primarily the Heavier Subunits, and Hypoxic-Reared Animals Expressing Increased Proportions of the Lower Molecular Mass Subunits. Moreover, Differential Hb Subunit Expression is Induced Upon Transfer of Normoxic-Reared Adults to a Hypoxic Environment, such that the Distribution of Hb Subunits in the Transferred Adults Becomes Similar to that of Hypoxic-Reared Animals. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Follow-Up Analyses Revealed Several Isoforms of Hb Subunits that May Represent Differential Gene Expression And/or Post-Translational Modification. Unlike Daphnia and Artemia, the Hb Hypoxic Response in Triops is Not Reversible in that There Was No Significant Decrease in Hb Concentration or Change in Hb Subunit Expression Pattern When Hypoxic-Reared Adults Were Transferred to a Normoxic Environment.


Biological Sciences


National Center for Research Resources, Grant P20RR016464

Keywords and Phrases

Hemoglobin; Hypoxia; Invertebrate; Triops longicaudatus

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 The Company of Biologists, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2005

PubMed ID


Included in

Entomology Commons