Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity that include oxidative stress-induced cellular events and alteration of the pathways pertaining to intracellular calcium homeostasis. All the stresses lead to cell injuries and death. Furthermore, as exposure to nanoparticles results in deregulation of the cell cycle (i.e., interfering with cell proliferation), the change in cell number is a function of cell killing and the suppression of cell proliferation. Collectively, the review article provides insights into the complexity of nanotoxicology.
Y. Huang et al., "The Toxicity of Nanoparticles Depends on Multiple Molecular and Physicochemical Mechanisms," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 18, no. 12, MDPI, Dec 2017.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122702
Keywords and Phrases
Calcium; Reactive Oxygen Metabolite; Cell Proliferation; Chemistry; Drug Effect; Metabolism; Oxidative Stress; Animals; Cell Cycle Checkpoints; Humans; Nanoparticles; Reactive Oxygen Species; Calcium Homeostasis; Physicochemical Property; Toxicity
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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01 Dec 2017