Many viral and nonviral systems have been developed to aid delivery of biologically active molecules into cells. Among these, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have received increasing attention in the past two decades for biomedical applications. In this review, we focus on opportunities and challenges associated with CPP delivery of nucleic acids and nanomaterials. We first describe the nature of versatile CPPs and their interactions with various types of cargoes. We then discuss in vivo and in vitro delivery of nucleic acids and nanomaterials by CPPs. Studies on the mechanisms of cellular entry and limitations in the methods used are detailed.


Biological Sciences

Keywords and Phrases

Nanomaterial; Penetratin; Polyarginine; Protein VP22; Small Interfering RNA; Amino Acid Sequence; Gene Delivery System; Gene Targeting; In Vitro Study; In Vivo Study; Synthesis; Procedures; Animals; Cell-Penetrating Peptides; Drug Delivery Systems; Humans; Nanostructures; Nucleic Acids

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2314-6133; 2314-6141

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2015 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2015

PubMed ID


Included in

Biology Commons