In recent years, flipped learning has received tremendous attention from educational practitioners and researchers. However, this study argues that existing e-learning systems mainly serve for learning management and content delivery purposes, although they lack support for flipped learning. As an innovative educational approach, flipped learning requires more pedagogical elements, such as integrated instructional design and adaptive content delivery, to achieve effective direct instruction. This study aims to create a learning adaptivity design to support effective learning in the flipped individual learning space in which the teacher is absent. Because teaching involves various pedagogical and content knowledge sources, we propose a conceptual model of teaching as a function of the knowledge triad of Guideline (G), Teaching Activity (T), and Material (M). To realize this conceptualization, an ontological problem-solving approach is used for knowledge-based systems development to integrate the relevant knowledge sources. The knowledge model is created using the Protégé platform to develop OWL-based domain ontology, task ontology, and SWRL-based semantic rules to enable inference in the GTM triad for learning adaptivity. The case illustration shows that the knowledge-based system prototype can adaptively guide student learning in the flipped individual learning space with the knowledge sources integrated.


Business and Information Technology

Publication Status

Full Access


Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, Grant 105‐2410‐H‐ 033‐022

Keywords and Phrases

flipped learning; individual learning space; knowledge-based systems; learning adaptivity; ontology

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1468-0394; 0266-4720

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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Publication Date

01 Jun 2018