We have measured K x-ray spectra and yields from Ar17+ ions slowly approaching a single-crystal Ge surface. The yields were measured as a function of the projectile velocity component perpendicular to the surface. From the data a characteristic time of approximately 1 psec was extracted for the in-flight filling above the surface of the Ar K vacancy.
M. Schulz et al., "X-Ray Emission from Slow Highly Charged Ar Ions Interacting with a Ge Surface," Physical Review A, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1653-1658, American Physical Society (APS), Aug 1991.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.44.1653
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