We introduce definitions of angle-resolved x-ray circular dichroism (ARXCD) and magnetic x-ray circular dichroism (ARMXCD). As defined, the much larger effect of circular dichroism (ARXCD) is separated from the smaller magnetic (ARMXCD) effect. In all materials, ARXCD is zero along mirror planes while nonzero elsewhere. ARMXCD is nonzero only in magnetic materials. The measurement and analysis of ARMXCD allow element specific surface magnetism and surface structure as well as their inter-relationship to be studied as functions of the outgoing electron's direction.
S. Y. Tong et al., "Angle-Resolved X-Ray Circular and Magnetic Circular Dichroisms: Definitions and Applications," Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 54, no. 21, pp. 15356-15362, American Physical Society (APS), Dec 1996.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.54.15356
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