Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine. Part 2: Volatile and Semivolatile Particulate Matter Emissions
The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C xHy fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from CxH yOz fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.
P. I. Williams and J. D. Allan and P. Lobo and H. Coe and S. Christie and C. W. Wilson and D. E. Hagen and P. D. Whitefield and D. W. Raper and L. Rye, "Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine. Part 2: Volatile and Semivolatile Particulate Matter Emissions," Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 19, pp. 10812-10819, American Chemical Society (ACS), Oct 2012.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es301899s
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
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