Nickel and Cobalt Production
The production of nickel and cobalt from primary sources involves beneficiation, and hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processing. Nickel is recovered from lateritic oxides either as ferronickel from saprolite ores or as an intermediate mixed sulfide or hydroxides from limonite ores. Sulfide ores are converted into matte. Intermediate products are refined into high-purity nickel. Cobalt in nickel ores is recovered during refining. A majority of cobalt is now produced from copper-cobalt ores in central Africa as an intermediate product, which is sent to existing cobalt refineries. Recycling of nickel and cobalt also occurs at significant levels through the reuse of alloy materials.
M. S. Moats and W. G. Davenport, "Nickel and Cobalt Production," Treatise on Process Metallurgy, vol. 3, pp. 625-669, Elsevier Ltd., Jan 2014.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-096988-6.00026-2
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Carbonyl; Cobalt; Converting; Electrowinning; Ferronickel; Flotation; Hydrogen reduction; Laterite; Leaching; Matte; Nickel; Precipitation; Recycling; Smelting; Solvent extraction; Sulfide; Upgrading
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
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