Liquid-Phase Sintering and Chemical Inhomogeneity in the BaTiO3-BaCO3-LiF System
An ongoing goal of multilayer capacitor research is to lower the firing temperature of the dielectric. This paper gives a detailed study of sintering BaTiO3 with LiF flux, which lowers the firing temperature through liquid-phase sintering. A detailed set of experiments is discussed concerning microstructural evolution and corresponding dielectric properties under a number of processing variables, including amount of LiF, sintering temperature, and particle size. Different scales of chemical inhomogeneity were observed in this system, which reflect two underlying mechanisms: solution reprecipitation with limited grain growth at low temperatures, which resulted in distinct core-shell structures, and flux volatility, which gave rise to microscopic chemical inhomogeneity at higher sintering temperatures.
S. Wang et al., "Liquid-Phase Sintering and Chemical Inhomogeneity in the BaTiO3-BaCO3-LiF System," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 407-416, Materials Research Society (MRS), Feb 2000.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2000.0064
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Barium titanate; Dielectric properties; Firing (of materials); Grain growth; Lithium compounds; Microstructure; Multilayers; Particle size analysis; Sintering; Thermal effects; Chemical inhomogeneity; Ternary systems
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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