Will Lead-based Anodes Ever Be Replaced in Aqueous Electrowinning?
Lead anodes have been employed in commercial aqueous electrowinning for close to a century. In the past three decades, several attempts have been made to replace lead anodes with other materials. For the most part, the use of other anodes, particularly coated titanium anodes (CTAs), has been limited to niche electrowinning applications. This article will review electrowinning processes that employ coated titanium anodes and evaluate metal electrowinning systems from a coated titanium anode perspective, including recent attempts at replacing lead-based anodes. Finally, a general economic evaluation of CTAs and lead anodes will be presented and areas for future research will be identified that could hasten the replacement of lead-based anodes in aqueous electrowinning systems.
M. S. Moats, "Will Lead-based Anodes Ever Be Replaced in Aqueous Electrowinning?," JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Springer Verlag, Oct 2008.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11837-008-0135-7
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Geosciences-General; Environment-General; Physics-General; Chemistry/Food Sciences-General; Engineering-General; Materials Science
Article - Journal
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