Dynamical Laws of the Coupled Gross-Pitaevskii Equations for Spin-1 Bose-einstein Condensates


In this paper, we derive analytically the dynamical laws of the coupled Gross- Pitaevskii equations (CGPEs) without/with an angular momentum rotation term and an external magnetic field for modelling nonrotating/rotating spin-1 Bose-Eintein condensates. We prove the conservation of the angular momentum expectation when the external trapping potential is radially symmetric in two dimensions and cylindrically symmetric in three dimensions; obtain a system of first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the dynamics of the density of each component and solve the ODEs analytically in a few cases; derive a second order ODE for the dynamics of the condensate width and show that it is a periodic function without/with a perturbation; construct the analytical solution of the CGPEs when the initial data is chosen as a stationary state with its center- of-mass shifted away from the external trap center. Finally, these dynamical laws are confirmed by the direct numerical simulation results of the CGPEs.


Mathematics and Statistics

Keywords and Phrases

rotating spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate; coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations; angular momentum rotation; condensate width; angular momentum expectation

Document Type

Article - Journal

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