Scaling Laws for Single and Multiple Electron Loss from Projectiles in Collisions with a Many-electron Target
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Using measured cross sections, empirical scaling laws are extracted for projectile stripping induced by collisions with a many-electron target. by scaling both the cross sections and the impact velocities, it is shown that a single universal curve can be used to fit data for single and multiple electron loss from negative ions, neutral particles, and singly or multiply charged positive ions. The scaling applies to projectiles ranging from hydrogen to uranium and collision energies ranging from below keV∕u to hundreds of MeV∕u . At high energies, existing data are consistent with a v−1 impact velocity dependence for scaled velocities less than 10. Limited data imply that above 10 the velocity dependence becomes v−2 . Using our universal curve, cross sections are predicted for electron loss from low-charge-state heavy ions at 20 and 100 MeV∕u .