AC Conductivity Relaxation Processes in CaCu₃Ti₄O₁₂ Ceramics: Grain Boundary and Domain Boundary Effects
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The ac conductivity of CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics associated with electrical charge carrier motion (ions or vacancies) was investigated as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The long range migration of charge carriers within the ceramic is restricted by two kinds of insulating barriers, namely, grain boundaries and domain boundaries. The potential barriers associated with these boundaries lead to two anomalies in conductivity response and three frequency-dependent contributions to conductivity: long range diffusion of carriers, carrier migration localized within grains, and carrier migration localized within domains.