Title

Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of the [Palladium(Ar-bian)]-catalyzed Semi-hydrogenation of 4-Octyne

Abstract

The kinetics of the stereoselective semi-hydrogenation of 4-octyne in THF by the highly active catalyst [Pd{(m,m'-(CF3)2C 6H3)-bian}(ma)] (2) (bian = bis(imino)acenaphthene; ma = maleic anhydride) has been investigated. The rate law under hydrogen-rich conditions is described by r = k[4-octyne]0.65[Pd]-[H2], showing first order in palladium and dihydrogen and a broken order in substrate. Parahydrogen studies have shown that a pairwise transfer of hydrogen atoms occurs in the rate-limiting step. In agreement with recent theoretical results, the proposed mechanism consists of the consecutive steps: alkyne coordination, heterolytic dihydrogen activation (hydrogenolysis of one Pd-N bond), subsequent hydro-palladation of the alkyne, followed by addition of N-H to palladium, reductive coupling of vinyl and hydride and, finally, substitution of the product alkene by the alkyne substrate. Under hydrogen-limiting conditions, side reactions occur, that is, formation of catalytically inactive palladacycles by oxidative alkyne coupling. Furthermore, it has been shown that (Z)-oct-4-ene is the primary reaction product, from which the minor product (E)-oct-4-ene is formed by an H2-assisted, palladium-catalyzed isomerization reaction.

Department(s)

Chemistry

Sponsor(s)

Chemistry Council of the Netherlands Foundation for Pure Research

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

00027863

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Citation

File Type

text

Language(s)

English

Rights

© 2005 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.


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