Isolation and Demonstration of the Elusive Concentration-gradient Paramagnetic Force
Using classical electrochemistry, it is demonstrated that the concentration-gradient paramagnetic force, FC, is a body force proportional to B2 acting parallel to the concentration gradient of electrogenerated radicals. FC can balance gravity, holding volumes of solution wherein mass transfer continues to take place by diffusion. In contrast to usual levitation forces, FC does not depend on field gradients and may be present even in homogeneous magnetic fields. Understanding the properties of FC is relevant to magnetic confinement and levitation and is speculated even to propulsion with objects having permanent susceptibility gradients.
N. Leventis and A. Dass, "Isolation and Demonstration of the Elusive Concentration-gradient Paramagnetic Force," Journal of the American Chemical Society, American Chemical Society (ACS), Jan 2005.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1021/ja043169b
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© 2005 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.